Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)
AMR is the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic and status data from water or energy metering devices and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, or analysis purposes.
Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)
BREEAM is an environmental impact assessment method for non-domestic buildings. Performance is measured across a series of ratings – Pass, Good, Very Good, Excellent and Outstanding.
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)
CO2e is a standard unit for measuring carbon footprints. It expresses the impact of each different greenhouse gas in terms of the amount of CO2 that would create the same amount of warming impact of each gas. As a result, the total impact of all these gases can be expressed as a single number in a same unit.
The CDP is an organisation which works with shareholders and listed companies to facilitate the disclosure and reporting of climate change data and information.
CIBSE Technical Memorandum 54 (TM54) provides building designers and owners with clear guidance on how to evaluate operational energy use fully, and accurately, at the design stage. It sets out how the operational energy required for the building can be estimated - covering both regulated and unregulated loads.
Energy Performance Certificate (EPC)
An EPC is an asset rating detailing how energy efficient a building is, rated by carbon dioxide emission on a scale of ‘A’-‘G’, where an ‘A’ rating is the most energy efficient. They are legally required for any building that is to be put on the market for sale or rent.
European Public Real Estate Association (EPRA)
EPRA is an association of Europe’s leading property companies, investors and consultants which strives to establish best practices in accounting, reporting and corporate governance.
The FTSE4Good is an index that has been developed to measure objectively the performance of companies that meet globally recognised corporate responsibility standards, such that organisations can make effective decisions when assessing or creating responsible investment products.
Fugitive emissions are emissions of gases or vapours from pressurised equipment such as air conditioning units due to leaks and other unintended releases/losses.
Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark (GRESB)
The Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark is an initiative set up to assess the environmental and social performance of public and private real estate investments and allow investors to understand their performance.
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
The Global Reporting Initiative is an internationally recognised sustainability reporting framework which provides metrics and methods for measuring and reporting sustainability related impacts and performance.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Corporate Accounting standard
This internationally recognised standard sets out methodologies for businesses to collate, calculate and report all the GHG emissions they produce.
Home Quality Mark (HQM)
HQM is an assessment standard for new homes. Performance is measured across a series of star ratings 1-5.
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH)
The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) is the chartered body and largest membership organisation for safety and health professionals. It acts as a champion, adviser, advocate and trainer for health and safety professionals working in organisations in around 130 countries.
ISS-Oekom is an ESG rating service that provides corporate and country ESG research and ratings that enables its clients to identify material social and environmental risks and opportunities.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
LEED is a US based environmental impact assessment method for buildings. Performance is measured across a series of ratings – Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum.
Loan Market Association (LMA) Green Loan Principles
The green loan principles aim is to create a high-level framework of market standards and guidelines, providing a consistent methodology for use across the green loan market. It comprises a series of voluntary recommended guidelines that seek to promote integrity by clarifying the instances in which a loan may be categorised as “green”.
Minimum Energy Efficiency Standard (MEES)
MEES sets a minimum energy efficiency level for buildings. By 2023, all commercial leases must be rated with EPC ‘E’.
National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS)
This is a building performance rating system which provides an energy performance benchmark using a simple star rating system on a 1-6 scale. This helps property owners understand and communicate a building’s performance versus other similar buildings to occupiers. Ratings are validated on an annual basis. It has been adopted in the UK as NABERS UK and is administered by the Building Research Establishment (BRE); NABERS UK currently relates to offices only.
National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health (NEBOSH)
The National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health (NEBOSH) is a leading global organisation, which provides health, safety and environmental qualifications to help to raise the competence of safety and environmental professionals, as well as individuals at all levels in the workplace.
Radiative forcing is the change in the energy balance in the lower atmosphere by a climate change mechanism. In this case, the change mechanism we reference in this report is aircraft emissions. Aircraft emissions contribute to this energy change in a number of ways e.g. they release substances that trigger the generation of aerosol particles or lead to changes in natural clouds such as contrails.
Renewable Energy Guarantees of Origin (REGO)
The REGO scheme administered by Ofgem provides transparency to consumers about the proportion of electricity that supplier’s source/provide from renewable generation.
Reporting of Injuries, Disease & Dangerous Occurrences Regulations, 2013 (RIDDOR)
RIDDOR requires employers and those in control of premises by law to report specified workplace incidents, such as work-related fatalities, major injuries, seven-day injuries (those causing more than seven days inability to carry out normal duties), work related diseases, and dangerous occurrences (near miss accidents).
Science Based Target initiative (SBTi)
The Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) is a collaboration between CDP, the United Nations Global Compact, World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The SBTi defines and promotes best practice in science-based target setting and independently assesses and approves companies’ targets. Science-based targets provide companies with a clearly defined pathway to future-proof growth by specifying how much and how quickly they need to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
Scope 1 carbon (AKA direct emissions): includes a company’s emissions from items such as gas use in boilers, corporate fuel consumption in company cars and emissions from refrigerants used in air conditioning equipment.
Scope 2 carbon (AKA indirect emissions): includes emissions from landlord electricity consumption but excludes occupier electricity usage.
Scope 3 carbon (AKA other indirect emissions): includes items such as emissions from occupier electricity consumption, embodied carbon, business air travel, water and waste.
Streamlined energy and carbon reporting (SECR)
The SECR regulations were introduced in April 2019 and require companies incorporated in the UK to undertake enhanced disclosures of their energy and carbon emissions in their financial reporting. Companies are required to comply with SECR if they have two of the three qualifying conditions; at least 250 employees, an annual turnover greater than £36m and an annual balance sheet total over £18m.
Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD)
Set up by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in response to the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors request for greater levels of decision-useful, climate-related information; the TCFD was asked to develop climate-related disclosures that could promote more informed investment, credit (or lending), and insurance underwriting decisions. In turn, this would enable stakeholders to understand better the concentrations of carbon-related assets in the financial sector and the financial system’s exposures to climate-related risks.